Finding the Ocean Inside an Opal
Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica. Its water content may range from 3% to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6% to 10%.
Because of its amorphous character it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike the other crystalline forms of silica which are classed as minerals. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, marl and basalt.
Opal is the national gemstone of Australia, which produces 97% of the world’s supply. The internal structure of precious opal makes it diffract light; depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. Precious opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black. Of these hues, the reds against black are the most rare, whereas white and greens are the most common. It varies in optical density from opaque to semi-transparent.
Taken from: TwistedSifter
The Standard Model Of Particle Physics
The world’s most sought-after particle is the missing piece of the Standard Model, the best theory available for how the universe works in all its aspects bar gravity (which is the province of Albert Einstein’s general relativity).
The model divides elementary particles into two classes:
- Fermions, a group comprising quarks (like those which make up protons and neutrons in atomic nuclei) and leptons (such as electrons that orbit these nuclei, and ghostly neutrinos).
- The bosons: gauge bosons, which carry forces of nature that allow the fermions to interact, and the Higgs boson, whose role is to endow the others with mass.
The concept of the Higgs was introduced in 1964, so it has taken physicists 48 years to go from idea to observation. None of the model’s 16 other particles was as elusive. Indeed, as the chart shows, the muon and the tau were discovered before anyone had predicted their existence. Both are leptons, heavier versions of the familiar electron, the first elementary particle to be observed, by J.J. Thomson, a Briton, in 1897.
Though the notion of a unit of negative charge had been around since the 1830s, a firmer prediction was made in 1881 by a German scientist, Hermann von Helmholz. The positron, the electron’s antimatter twin (not included in our chart, since in terms of the Standard Model, particles and their antiversions are two sides of a single coin) popped out of an equation in 1928; it popped up in an experiment four years later.
Laws Of Motion
- In the absence of an unbalanced forced, an object at rest remains at rest and an object already in motion remainds inmotion with constant speed in a straight line path.
- The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the unbalanced force acting on it and is iversely proportional to the object mass. The direction of the acceleration is the same as direction of the unbalanced force. F= m.a
- For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
taken from: Visual.ly
Visual Perception Video Creates Strange After-Effects
WARNING: Do not watch this video if you suffer from photosensitive epilepsy.
This trippy but very cool video from ScienceForum has been made to experience mild hallucinogenic (visual distortion) effects upon termination of the video. If you watch the video and follow the instructions exactly, you should experience visual waves and distortions for approximately from 5-10 seconds after the video’s completion. The repetitive patterns in the video create recurring psychological stimulation that continues after the video has stopped. If you spell out the letters in the video, there is a hidden message. Also the effects are much better if you view it on full screen. Have fun!
More the knowledge, Lesser The Ego; Lesser the knowledge, more the Ego
taken from: Ayo Berbuatbaik
The brain, a three-pound chunk of organic matter, is not only the body’s most marvelous organ, it is the most complicated object known. It is “wider than the sky,” wrote poet Emily Dickinson. “For, put them side by side, I The one the other will contain I With ease, and you beside.”
It is humbling to consider the brain and all that it does in every moment of our lives.
In this corrugated mass of Resh , a stag geringly complex symphony of electrochemical reactions plays out every second of every day. Much of it does so without need of any conscious conductor to direct the ongoing melody.